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Mathematical method for representing the shape of the earth on a flat plane; a formula that converts latitude-longitude locations on the earth's spherical surface to X,Y locations on a maps flat surface. A system of intersecting lines, such as the grid of a map, on which part or all of the globe or another spherical surface is represented as a plane surface. The result may have distortion in distance, area, orientation and/or scale. See Conformal, Conic and Cylindrical Projections.