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U.S. CENSUS BUREAU TIGER/Line Redistricting Census 2000

Census TIGER(R) and TIGER/Line(R) are registered trademarks of the U.S. Census Bureau. Windows is a trademark of the Microsoft Corporation. ADOBE and Acrobat Reader are trademarks of Adobe Systems Inc. ZIP Code and ZIP+4 are trademarks of the U.S. Postal Service.

All legal boundaries and names are as of January 1, 2000. The boundary information in the TIGER/Line files for both legal and statistical entities are for Census Bureau statistical data collection and tabulation purposes only; their depiction and designation for statistical purposes does not constitute a determination of jurisdictional authority or rights of ownership or entitlement.

WHAT ARE TIGER/LINE FILES

The TIGER/Line files were created from the Census Bureau's TIGER (Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing) data base of selected geographic and cartographic information. TIGER was developed at the Census Bureau to support the mapping and related geographic activities required by the decennial and economic censuses and sample survey programs. TIGER/Line files are made available to the public and are typically used by people to provide the digital map base for their Geographic Information System or mapping software.

This DVD (or CD-ROM) does not contain software to display or generate maps, nor is the data on this DVD (or CD-ROM) in the form of a map image. To create maps with the data on this DVD (or CD-ROM), one would typically use a Geographic Information System package or other mapping software. The Census Bureau cannot provide help in how to use this data with specific software packages. The TIGER/line files are provided in ASCII text format only. Users are responsible for converting or translating the files into a format used by their specific software package.

For information on how to use the TIGER/Line data with a specific software package one should contact the company that produced the software. For information on companies that sell products that use TIGER/Line data or that provide various TIGER/Line-related services refer to the "Vendor's List" on the TIGER Page at the Census Bureau's World Wide Web site described below.

ACCESSING TIGER/LINE FILES

The TIGER/Line files are distributed on DVD (or CD-ROM) and on the Census Bureau's Internet site (www.census.gov). This README.TXT file references both the disc and Internet distribution methods. For those downloading the TIGER/Line files from the Internet, unless otherwise noted, you can find the supplementary files mentioned below through links from the TIGER/Line download page.

WHAT'S NEW - KEY CHANGES

The TIGER/Line files in this version were originally produced as the official version of the TIGER/Line files delivered to the official recipients under Public Law 94-171 and to redistricting officials in the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files do not include files for the Island Areas. The Census Bureau will produce another version of the TIGER/Line files, the Census 2000 TIGER/Line files, later in 2001 which will include files for the Island Areas.

This version of the TIGER/Line files does NOT contain the ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) and the address ranges are of approximately the same vintage as those appearing in the 1999 TIGER/Line files. That is, the Census Bureau is producing the Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files in advance of the computer processing that will ensure that the address ranges in the TIGER/Line files agree with the final Master Address File (MAF) used for tabulating Census 2000. At a later date in 2001, the Census Bureau will produce another version of the TIGER/Line files, titled Census 2000 TIGER/Line, which will have ZCTA codes and updated address ranges.

TIGER/LINE AND ACCOMPANYING FILES

The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files contain digital cartographic data and are accompanied by documentation and related files. These files are distributed on DVD (also known as Digital Versatal Disc or Digital Video Disc) and on the Census Bureau's Internet site (www.census.gov). It may also be distributed as a disc-on-demand CD-ROM product. On the Internet site (select the "TIGER" link from the home page) there are links to the directory/folder for each state where the individual files are stored. Other links lead one to the accompanying files.

On the DVD (or CD-ROM) the TIGER/Line data is stored in the TIGER directory in subdirectories by state. Each state subdirectory is named using the two-digit FIPS code and the Post Office abbreviation for the state (ex. 02_AK for Alaska). Within the state subdirectory each county file has the name TGRssccc.ZIP, where the "ss" is the state FIPS code and "ccc" is the county FIPS code.

The data for each county (or statistically equivalent entity) is stored in a single compressed file that, when decompressed, results in up to 17 separate files representing each of the TIGER/Line record types that exist for that county. Some counties did not require all of the 17 record types and therefore will have less than 17 files. If the types of data contained in record types 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 and Z are not appropriate for a given county then the files for those record types will NOT be included. The name of each of these files uses a modification of the above convention (TGRssccc.RTx) where "x" is the Record Type. Appendix A of the TIGER/line documentation provides a list of counties and their FIPS codes by state. The data in these files is in a standard ASCII format. The Census bureau does NOT release the TIGER/Line data in vendor-specific GIS/mapping software formats.

Information on the content of each record type can be found in Chapter 6 of the TIGER/Line documentation. Information on decompressing the data files is found below under the heading "DATA COMPRESSION".

The files use the TIGER/Line record formats as described in the accompanying documentation. When decompressed they are fixed length ASCII with record separators (carriage return, line feed).

ADDITIONAL FILES:

COUNTSss.TXT

Each DVD (or CD-ROM) contains COUNTSss.TXT files in the subdirectory for each state under the TIGER directory of the disc. If you are downloading from the Census Internet site they can be found in the appropriate state folder. The file name will have the appropriate state FIPS code in place of "ss" in the file name. The COUNTSss.TXT files show the counts for the number of records for each record type by county for all states that are included on the DVD (or CD-ROM). Note that all counties are listed for a given state. The layout of COUNTSss.TXT is as follows:

FIPS state code 16:17
FIPS county code 20:22
Creation date 25:30
Record type 33:33
Record Count 36:43

An important aspect of the COUNTSss.TXT file is the "Creation Date" information for these files. This date is the date the TIGER/Line file was created from a benchmark of the TIGER data base. The process of creating TIGER/Line files involves extracting the appropriate data from various internal data sets to create what we term a TIGER/Line benchmark. Essentially this benchmark is a snapshot in time of our TIGER data bases which are constantly being updated. From this benchmark we create the TIGER/Line files for use in our operations. Depending on the nature of the operation for which the files are being created, this process can proceed over several months as the sets of files for individual states are created. The VERSION CODE field in TIGER/Line identifies the benchmark used and one can determine the vintage of the file from the information in this field (see page 2-1 of the TIGER/Line documentation). However, occasionally errors are found in the benchmark or in the software that produces the TIGER/Line files. Corrections are made to the benchmark file and then a new TIGER/Line is created from the benchmark. In these situations the VERSION CODE for the original and corrected files would be the same but the "Creation Date" information in the COUNTSss.TXT file would reflect the different vintages.

DOCUMENTATION

The documentation for the TIGER/Line files is contained in the TECHDOC subdirectory of the DVD (or CD-ROM). The file name is TGRPL2K.PDF and is provided in the PDF format which requires the ADOBE(TM) Acrobat Reader (version 3.0 or 4.0). We are including the installation software for the Windows 95 (ar40eng.exe) version (4.05) of the reader in the TECHDOC/ACROREAD DVD (or CD-ROM) directory.

Included here are ADOBE's instructions for the installation of the Reader software: "Copy this software to the hard drive of your computer and run it. It will install the Windows 95 version of the ADOBE Reader software on your computer. If there is a failure at any point during the installation of Acrobat Reader, the installer performs a complete uninstall. For this reason, it is important not to close the installer application by clicking its close box in the upper right corner of the background window after clicking the "Thank You" dialog box that appears at the end of the installation. If you wait for a second or two, the installer will automatically close the background windows after the installation is complete."

When the installation is complete you can view the TIGER/Line documentation by running the ADOBE Reader and selecting the TGRPL2K.PDF file from the "Open" menu. To get the ADOBE Reader for other computer platforms visit the ADOBE Web site for the proper software (http://www.adobe.com).

METADATA

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata is included on the DVD/CD-ROM in the TIGER subdirectory. It is also available from the Census Internet download site.

DATA COMPRESSION

The TIGER/Line data on this disk has been compressed into an archive file to save space and reduce the number of disks required for the data and to facilitate downloading from the Internet. If the files were not compressed it would require over 40 CD-ROM disks to hold the data needed to cover the entire United States. Use software compatible with PK-ZIP 1.93A or higher to decompress the data.

Info-ZIP's software (Zip, Unzip and related utilities) are examples of packages that can be used. The Info-ZIP software is free and can be obtained as source code or executables from various bulletin boards and on line services software archive sites. There are versions for many computer platforms. One site from which this software can be downloaded is: ftp://ftp.freesoftware.com/pub/infozip/info-zip.html.

KNOWN PROBLEMS AND ANOMALIES WITH THIS TIGER/LINE DATA SET:

Additional problems or anomalies may be identified in the Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line file DVD/CD-ROMs at a later date. Users should refer to the Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line Errata and User Notes at URL: http://www.census.gov/geo/www/tiger

VOTING DISTRICTS

The voting district names for Baldwin County, Alabama provided to the Census Bureau during the Census 2000 Redistricting Data Program initially were not correct. Although incorrect, the voting district names that appear in Record Type C of the Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line file for Baldwin County, Alabama match the voting district names that appear in the Public Law 94-171 Redistricting Data file. The correct names are provided in a separate file on the DVD or appropriate CD-ROM or on the Internet. The correct names are provided as an ASCII text file and as separate ASCII file that uses the Record Type C record layout. Using the file in Record Type C layout, users can locate and replace the Record Type C records that have the incorrect voting district names with Record Type C records containing the correct voting district names.

Several voting district names in Jackson, Platte, and St. Louis Counties, Missouri are incorrect in Record Type C of the Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files. The misspelling of a voting district name in St. Louis County resulted in two separate voting districts appearing in the Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line. After correcting the spelling of the voting district name for VTD 231 in St. Louis County, voting district 231 and 232 have identical names and should be a single voting district. The correct names are provided in separate files on the DVD or appropriate CD-ROM or on the Internet. The correct names are provided as an ASCII text file and as separate ASCII files for each county using the Record Type C record layout. Using the files in Record Type C layout, users can locate and replace the Record Type C records that have the incorrect voting district names with Record Type C records containing the correct voting district names.

In the Town of Amesbury (FIPS code 01185) in Essex County, Massachusetts (25009), Amesbury Precinct 2 (VTD 306) is incorrectly included as part of Amesbury Precinct 1 (VTD 305). That is, the area shown in the Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files as Amesbury Precinct 1 (VTD 305) comprises the area of both Amesbury Precinct 1 (VTD 305) and Amesbury Precinct 2 (VTD 306).

Some voting district names in Brazos County, Texas (48041) are incorrect in the Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files. A file showing the corrected voting district names are provided as a separate file on the DVD or appropriate CD-ROM or on the Internet. The corrected voting district names are provided in a separate ASCII file that uses the Record Type C record layout. Using the file in Record Type C layout, users can locate and replace the Record Type C records that have the incorrect voting district names with Record Type C records containing the correct voting district names.

STATE LEGISLATIVE DISTRICTS

For Census 2000, states were afforded the opportunity to define their state legislative districts (upper and lower chambers) using their actual boundaries. The state of Ohio participated in this optional component of the program by providing approximated legislative districts. For further information regarding Ohio's submission please contact the Census 2000 Redistricting Data Office at (301) 457-4039 or via e-mail at RDO@census.gov.

Kanawha County, West Virginia has two senate districts: 8 and 17. Both districts are coextensive in territory with the county and there is no boundary between them. The Census Bureau represents this area with a single State Legislative District code: 817.

SCHOOL DISTRICT NAMES

The community school district names assigned to the New York city school districts are incorrect in Record Type C of the Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files for the Bronx, Kings, New York, Queens, and Richmond Counties. Correct names are provided in separate files on the DVD or appropriate CD-ROM or on the Internet. The correct names are provided as an ASCII text file and as separate ASCII files for each county using the Record Type C record layout. Using the files in Record Type C layout, users can locate and replace the Record Type C records that have the incorrect community school district names with Record Type C records containing the corrected community school district names.

School district names assigned to federally operated school districts in Cumberland, Haywood, Hoke, Jackson, Oslow, and Swain Counties in North Carolina are incorrect in Record Type C of the Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files. Correct names are provided in separate files on the DVD or appropriate CD-ROM or on the Internet. The correct names are provided as an ASCII text file and as separate ASCII files for each county using the Record Type C record layout. Using the files in Record Type C layout, users can locate and replace the Record Type C records that have the incorrect school district names with Record Type C records containing the corrected school district names.

MISSING METROPOLITAN AREA CODES

Frye Island town (FIPS code (27025) and Long Island town (FIPS code 41067) in Cumberland County, Maine (23005) are in the Portland, ME MSA (MSA code 6400) but are erroneously shown in the Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files with a blank MSA code in Record Type S. Those Record Type S records in Cumberland County, ME with a COUSUB field = 27025 or a COUSUB field = 41067 should have MSACMSA = 6400.

MISSING PLACE CODES

The Census Bureau has found seven blocks in three consolidated cities that are missing FIPS place codes. The following are the FIPS place codes that should be associated with these blocks:

ST COU TRACT BLOCK PLACE
09 009 150200 2999 47515
13 059 130500 2021 09068
13 059 130500 2023 09068
13 059 140600 1008 03440
13 059 140600 1009 03440
47 037 017100 1001 52006
47 037 017100 1008 52006

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS

The congressional district codes in this TIGER/Line file found in the Record Types listed below may contain errors and should NOT be used. These codes were improperly extracted from the internal Census TIGER data base.

Record Type A, Field CD106
Record Type S, Field CDCU

We suggest that data users build the 106th Congressional District layer in their spatial data base by using the information in the geographic header of the Public Law 94-171 data files when they become available. This can be accomplished by matching the state-county-census tract-census block codes between your Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line based system and the state-county-census tract-census block-106th Congressional District codes in the P.L. 94-171 data file.

The extraction of the 106th Congressional District codes will be corrected for the production of the Census 2000 TIGER/Line files later this Spring. ADDRESS ANOMALIES IN PUERTO RICO

The TIGER/Line files contain some address range coverage for Puerto Rico. However, use of this information for geocoding purposes may be problematic and the data user should proceed with caution. These address ranges are preliminary attempts at using Puerto Rico address ranges in Census Bureau files. Due to the lack of software or resources to handle some of the more unique aspects of addressing in Puerto Rico, the address ranges were entered without the standard edits and quality checks used in other parts of the United States. Improvements in software and address standardization for Puerto Rico are expected in the future. At present, there are inconsistencies, overlaps, and duplication of address ranges. Address ranges may lack alpha character prefixes or have hyphenated prefixes. The files also lack the community names used in a four-line address that the U.S. Postal Service requires to avoid duplicate addresses. Errors in the reference files, and other factors may limit the usefulness of this product for geocoding purposes. ROAD FEATURE ANOMALIES The Census Bureau extracts TIGER/Line files from the TIGER data base which is continually updated. During the clerical update process for some Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files errors caused anomalies to be introduced into some chains represented in Record Types 1 and 2. For these cases road features may appear in the Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files unconnected to other road features (so-called floating features) or severely skewed in relation to surrounding line features of any type. We correct these errors as we find them, however, it is likely that some still exist. Another road feature anomaly is the sporadic occurrence of road segments with a misclassified Census Feature Class Code (CFCC). The result is that complete chains for the affected road features will have segments with different CFCC values assigned erroneously. This problem could affect applications that use the CFCC values for network analysis, routing, or for assigning symbology to a feature when creating a map. We believe that these errors were introduced inadvertently during an updating operation to edit address range information on new as well as existing records. We are continuing to correct these as they are discovered. MISMATCH - P.L. 94-171 GEOGRAPHIC HEADER INFORMATION AND REDISTRICTING CENSUS 2000 TIGER/LINE FILES The Geographic Header files released with the redistricting data for each state have some fields that are not always completely filled by their required content, listed below. All of these fields are left-justified in the P.L. 94-171 data files, but only the NAME field should have been left-justified. All of the other fields should have been right-justified. This would match their presentation in the Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files, for the fields that represent a code or nominal value identifying a geographic area (VTD, SLDU, SLDL, and TAZ), and allow unambiguous interpretation of the fields that represent integer values (AREALAND, AREAWATR, and POP100). The formatting will be corrected starting with the Summary File 1 (SF1) and Summary File 2 (SF2) state files.

Field In PL94-171 Geographic Header Correct Formatting
VTD Left-justified, blank filled Right-justified, blank filled
SLDU Left-justified, blank filled Right-justified, blank filled
SLDL Left-justified, blank filled Right-justified, blank filled
TAZ Left-justified, blank filled Right-justified, blank filled
AREALAND Left-justified, blank filled Right-justified, blank filled
AREAWATR Left-justified, blank filled Right-justified, blank filled
POP100 Left-justified, blank filled Right-justified, blank filled

QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Questions about the Census TIGER/Line files and future plans for this and other TIGER-related products may be directed to the Products and Services Staff of the Geography Division at (301) 457-1128 or to the e-mail address tiger@census.gov.

General information about TIGER-related products is available from the TIGER page on the Census Bureau's World Wide Web site (http://www.census.gov/geo/www/tiger/). This Web site also is a source of information that is of specific interest to TIGER/Line users and of general interest regarding the geographic programs at the Census Bureau. As appropriate, additional information about this product will be posted, such as ERRATA or USER NOTES.

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