U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
Census TIGER(R) and TIGER/Line(R) are registered trademarks of the
U.S. Census Bureau. ZCTA(TM) is a trademark of the U.S. Census Bureau.
Windows is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation. ADOBE,
Acrobat, and Acrobat Reader are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems
Inc. ZIP Code and ZIP+4 are trademarks of the U.S. Postal Service.
Some legal boundaries and names are those reported to the U.S. Census
Bureau to be legally in effect on January 1, 2000 while others are
updated and legally in effect as of the latest Boundary and Annexation
Survey (BAS). The boundaries represented in the 2002 TIGER/Line files
are those reported to the Census Bureau by April 1, 2002 as being in
effect as of January 1, 2002. The boundary information in the
TIGER/Line files for both legal and statistical entities are for Census
Bureau statistical data collection and tabulation purposes only; their
depiction and designation for statistical purposes does not constitute
a determination of jurisdictional authority or rights of ownership or
WHAT ARE TIGER/LINE FILES
The TIGER/Line files were created from the Census Bureau's TIGER
(Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing) database
of selected geographic and cartographic information. TIGER was
developed at the Census Bureau to support the mapping and related
geographic activities required by the decennial and economic censuses
and sample survey programs. TIGER/Line files are made available to the
public and are typically used by people to provide the digital map base
for their Geographic Information System or mapping software.
The TIGER/Line files are provided in ASCII text
format only. Users are responsible for converting or translating the
files into a format used by their specific software package.
For information on how to use the TIGER/Line data with a specific
software package one should contact the company that produced the
WHAT'S NEW - KEY CHANGES
The 2002 TIGER/Line files include files for all counties and
statistically equivalent entities in the United States as well as
files for Puerto Rico and the Island Areas. The 2002 TIGER/Line
files are released by county or statistically equivalent entity
based on the current boundaries in effect as of January 1, 2002 as
reported to the Census Bureau by April 1, 2002. Since Census
2000 there have been changes in the universe of counties or
statistically equivalent entities. In Colorado, Broomfield County
was created from parts of Adams, Boulder, Jefferson, and Weld Counties.
This change has resulted in the creation of a separate TIGER/Line file
for Broomfield County, Colorado. In Virginia, the independent city of
Clifton Forge changed its status to become Clifton Forge town and is
now part of Alleghany County, Virginia; it appears in the Alleghany
County, Virginia TIGER/Line file. Beginning with the 2002 TIGER/Line
files, the Census Bureau no longer will produce a TIGER/Line file for
the Midway Islands.
The 108th Congressional Districts do not appear in the 2002 TIGER/Line
files. The Census Bureau still was in the process of collecting this
information from the states at the time of the creation of the 2002
The 2002 TIGER/Line files contain few, if any, updates to street
features or address ranges from the Census 2000 versions of the
TIGER/Line files. Some additional features may have been added in the
20 counties where the Census Bureau improved the street feature
coordinates. In a few instances some new features may appear, and
address ranges could have been added or updated, to resolve challenges
as part of the Census 2000 Count Question Resolution (CQR) Program.
As part of a research project to upgrade the positional accuracy of
TIGER data, the Census Bureau improved the street feature coordinates
in the following counties: Kent, New Castle, and Sussex Counties in
Delaware; Seminole County in Florida; Cecil, Somerset and Talbot
Counties in Maryland; Baltimore City in Maryland; Auglaize, Crawford,
Defiance, Delaware, Fulton, Henry, Miami, Putnam, Richland, Van Wert,
and Williams Counties in Ohio; and Hughes County in South Dakota.
The Census Bureau has made major changes to the structure, field
definitions, and contents for the 2002 TIGER/Line files. New record
types have been added, two record types were deleted, and several
record types were expanded and substantially revised. The Census
Bureau has removed the 1990 geography from the 2002 TIGER/Line files
replacing it with current geography. Also new for the 2002 TIGER/Line
files is a permanent zero-cell (or node) identification number (TZID)
for each node.
To improve the ability of data users to merge multiple counties, the
Census Bureau is adding the state and county codes to those Record Type
1 records for the adjacent county (these are the Record Type 1 records
that have the single-sided segment flag set, and until this version,
all the data elements for the side of the record "outside" the county
have been blank). The Census Bureau also is making the TLIDs and TZIDs
for these records the same. Thus the county boundary segments and
zero-cells in adjacent counties will now have the same TLID and TZID.
TIGER/LINE AND ACCOMPANYING FILES
Each state subdirectory is named using the two-digit FIPS code and the Post Office abbreviation for the state
(ex. 02_AK for Alaska). Within the state subdirectory each county
file has the name TGRssccc.ZIP, where the "ss" is the state FIPS code
and "ccc" is the county FIPS code.
The data for each county (or statistically equivalent entity) is stored
in a single compressed file that, when decompressed, results in up to
19 separate files representing each of the TIGER/Line record types that
exist for that county. Some counties did not require all of the 19
record types and therefore will have less than 19 files. If the types
of data contained in record types 4, 6, 7, 8, B and Z are not
appropriate for a given county then the files for those record types
will NOT be included. New Record Types E and U do not appear in the
2002 TIGER/Line files. The name of each of these files uses a
modification of the above convention (TGRssccc.RTx) where "x" is the
Record Type. Appendix A of the TIGER/line documentation provides a
list of counties and their FIPS codes by state. The data in these
files is in a standard ASCII format. The Census Bureau does NOT
release the TIGER/Line data or an extract of the internal Census
TIGER database in vendor-specific GIS/mapping software formats.
KNOWN PROBLEMS AND ANOMALIES WITH THIS TIGER/LINE DATA SET:
TIGER ZERO-CELL ID (TZID)
Because the 2002 TIGER/Line files are the first version of the
TIGER/Line files to contain the permanent zero-cell identification
number (TZID), we expect there to be some possible differences between
the TZIDs in the 2002 and the 2003 TIGER/Line files. The Census Bureau
expects the TZIDs to be stable in the 2003 and later versions of the
TIGER/Line files. The differences will mainly appear in the 20 counties
listed in the What's New - Key Changes section of this document where
the Census Bureau improved the street feature coordinates and possibly
their adjacent counties.
RANGE OF TIGER/LINE IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS (TLIDS) IN RECORD TYPE R
Record Type H contains the range of unique complete chain record numbers
assigned to a census file. In counties with changes to their county
boundaries after January 1, 2000, the complete range of TLIDs within the
current county boundary do not appear in Record Type R of the 2002
TIGER/Line file for that county. Users will need to reference Record
Type R from the adjoining county to identify the potential range of
unique complete chain record numbers.
ADDRESS ANOMALIES IN PUERTO RICO
The TIGER/Line files contain some address range coverage for Puerto
Rico. However, use of this information for geocoding purposes may be
problematic and the data user should proceed with caution. These
address ranges are preliminary attempts at using Puerto Rico address
ranges in Census Bureau files. Due to the lack of software or
resources to handle some of the more unique aspects of addressing in
Puerto Rico, the address ranges were entered without the standard edits
and quality checks used in other parts of the United States.
Improvements in software and address standardization for Puerto Rico
are expected in the future. At present, there are inconsistencies,
overlaps, and duplication of address ranges. Address ranges may lack
alpha character prefixes or have hyphenated prefixes. The files also
lack the community names used in a four-line address that the U.S.
Postal Service requires to avoid duplicate addresses. Errors in the
reference files, and other factors may limit the usefulness of this
product for geocoding purposes.
ROAD FEATURE ANOMALIES
The Census Bureau extracts TIGER/Line files from the TIGER database
which is continually updated. During the clerical update process for
some Census 2000 operations errors caused anomalies to be introduced
into some chains represented in Record Types 1 and 2. For these cases
road features may appear in the 2002 TIGER/Line files unconnected to
other road features (so-called floating features) or severely skewed in
relation to surrounding line features of any type. We correct these
errors as we find them, however, it is likely that some still exist.
Another road feature anomaly is the sporadic occurrence of road
segments with a misclassified Census Feature Class Code (CFCC). The
result is that complete chains for the affected road features will have
segments with different CFCC values assigned erroneously. This problem
could affect applications that use the CFCC values for network
analysis, routing, or for assigning symbology to a feature when
creating a map. We believe that these errors were introduced
inadvertently during an updating operation to edit address range
information on new as well as existing records. We are continuing to
correct these as they are discovered.
QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Questions about the Census TIGER/Line files and future plans for this
and other TIGER-related products may be directed to the Geographic
Products Management Branch of the Geography Division at (301) 763-1128
or to the e-mail address email@example.com.
General information about TIGER-related products is available from the
TIGER page on the Census Bureau's World Wide Web site
(http://www.census.gov/geo/www/tiger/). This Web site also is a source
of other information that is of specific interest to TIGER/Line users
and of general interest regarding the geographic programs at the Census
Bureau. As appropriate, additional information about this product will
be posted, such as ERRATA or USER NOTES.